PhD position: EUV Plasma Modeling

ongeveer 2 maanden geleden


Van Vollenhovenlaan, Utrecht, Utrecht
Tijdelijk contract / Tijdelijke opdracht
Uren per week:
40 uur
€ 2834 per maand

The group EUV Plasma Modeling at ARCNL is looking for a PhD-student to work on a theoretical and numerical model that describes departures from thermodynamic equilibrium in high-density plasma. The goal of the project is ...


The group EUV Plasma Modeling at ARCNL is looking for a PhD-student to work on a theoretical and numerical model that describes departures from thermodynamic equilibrium in high-density plasma.
The goal of the project is to establish a collisional-radiative model for tin plasma that avoids the numerical evaluation of hundreds of such equations, by identifying partial equilibrium relations among the species and projecting those on the system of transport equations. The expected result is a model that operates on a much smaller set of control parameters. This yields a massive reduction of the computational load and, more importantly, a much better insight in the essential tin ion kinetics. Results will be compared with experiments that will be carried out in the EUV Plasma Dynamics group at ARCNL.
You will be based at the Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL) on the Science Park in Amsterdam. The project will be carried out in a close collaboration with your colleagues in the EUV Plasma Dynamics group and with teams at Eindhoven University of Technology and the ISAN institute in Troitsk, Russia. You will communicate extensively with researchers in other fields where composition complexity plays a role, such as combustion engineering.


You have a MSc-degree in physics, astrophysics or a related field. You have a profound knowledge of atomic and radiative processes in plasmas, and affinity with computational methods in these fields. Good verbal and written communication skills (in English) are mandatory.


When fulfilling a PhD position at the NWO Institutes Organisation (formerly FOM), you will get the status of junior scientist. You will have an employee status and can participate in all the employee benefits the NWO Institutes Organisation (NWO-I) offers. You will get a contract for four years. Your salary will be up to a maximum of 2,834 euro gross per month. The salary is supplemented with a holiday allowance of 8 percent and an end-of-year bonus of 8.33 percent. You are supposed to have a thesis finished at the end of your four year term with NWO-I. A training programme is part of the agreement. You and your supervisor will make up a plan for the additional education and supervising that you specifically need. This plan also defines which teaching activities you will be responsible (up to a maximum of ten percent of your time). The conditions of employment of NWO-I are laid down in the Collective Labour Agreement for Research Centres (Cao-Onderzoekinstellingen), more exclusive information is available at this website under Personeelsinformatie (in Dutch) or under Personnel (in English). General information about working at NWO-I can be found in the English part of this website under Personnel. The 'FOM job interview code' applies to this position.

Additional information

General information about working at NWO-Ican be found in the English part of this website under Personnel. The 'FOM job interview code'applies to this position.
Dr. Jan van Dijk, Group leader EUV Plasma Modeling, +31 20 851 71 00.


The plasma that arises when a tin droplet is hit by a laser is initially close to local thermal equilibrium. Under such circumstances the system is characterized by merely two parameters: the pressure and temperature distributions. This complicates an investigation of the plasma properties, since the more a system is in equilibrium, the fewer material-specific observables remain. The plasma will expand though, and by doing so will transform in a severe out of equilibrium state. This so-called afterglow is a source of information for the modelling group. By observing, modelling and simulating the temperatures, particle densities and pressures after the early phase, the group aims to deduct what happened inside the ‘black box’ right after the laser hit the tin droplet. The overall aim is to gain a theoretical and numerical understanding of these types of ultra-dense, high energy plasma’s, and by doing so contribute to a more efficient EUV production process with less collateral damage. The ARCNL group will act as a worldwide hub for different experts in this field, where a dialogue is established to advance the knowledge about these types of plasmas. To be able to both validate the model with experimental data, and use the model to help interpret the outcome of experiments, this group will act in close collaboration with ARCNL’s Atomic Plasma Processes and the EUV Plasma Dynamics groups.
EUV photolithography is the state-of-the-art industrial technique to define nanostructures in semiconductor devices. The required EUV light is generated by a high-density tin plasma. When a tin droplet is exposed to an intense infrared laser pulse, it is quickly transformed into such a plasma. Subsequently, the plasma will expand in its low-pressure environment of hydrogen gas, in the process making a transition away from Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. Ultimately that means that the densities of the excited tin atoms and ions must be calculated from a set of diffusion-advection-reaction equations.


The Advanced Research Center for Nanolithography (ARCNL) focuses on the fundamental physics involved in current and future key technologies in nanolithography, primarily for the semiconductor industry. ARCNL is a public-private partnership between the Netherlands Foundation of Scientific Research Institutes (NWO-I), the University of Amsterdam (UvA), the VU University Amsterdam (VU) and the semiconductor equipment manufacturer ASML. ARCNL is located at the Amsterdam Science Park, The Netherlands, and is currently building up towards a size of approximately 100 scientists and support staff. See also


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